Background: The anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF) superfamily. In women, AMH serum levels can be almost undetectable at birth, with a subtle increase noted after puberty. Data are lacking with regard to menstrual cycle day-to-day fluctuations. This longitudinal study was designed to investigate the pattern of secretion of AMH throughout the menstrual cycle in regularly cycling women.
Methods: Twelve healthy female subjects aged 18-24 years participated in this study. Blood samples were taken every other day throughout one menstrual cycle. Serum FSH, LH, estradiol (E(2)), progesterone, inhibin B and AMH levels were assayed by double-antibody radioimmunoassay using commercial kits.
Results: Serum AMH in the first days of the menstrual cycle (days -14 to -12) was 3.8 +/- 1.2 ng/ml (mean +/- SD). No significant changes were observed in serum AMH levels throughout the menstrual cycle. The highest value was 3.9 +/- 1.3 ng/ml at day -12 and the lowest value was 3.4 +/- 1.1 ng/ml at day 14, and the difference was not significant.
Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that serum AMH levels do not change significantly throughout the menstrual cycle. Hence, AMH exhibits a relatively stable expression during the menstrual cycle, making it an attractive determinant of ovarian activity.