The aim of this study was to determine if macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES (regulated upon activation normally T-cell expressed and secreted) serum concentrations are associated with clinical manifestations, disease activity, and damage accrual in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A cross-sectional study was performed in 62 SLE patients (per American College of Rheumatology criteria) participating in a longitudinal study and 20 healthy subjects. MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES serum concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Demographic parameters, clinical manifestations, serologic features, pharmacologic treatments, disease activity, and damage accrual were determined at study visit. Disease activity was assessed with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Activity Measure (SLAM), and disease damage was assessed with Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinic Damage Index (SDI). The relation between the variables was studied with the Student t test and the Pearson r correlation test. SLE patients were more likely to have higher concentrations of MIP-1beta and RANTES than healthy individuals. In addition, they had a trend to have higher concentrations of MIP-1alpha. Patients with discoid lupus were more likely to have higher levels of MIP-1alpha. Elevation of MIP-1beta correlated with higher SDI score. No association was found between serum chemokines levels and disease activity. In conclusion, SLE patients have higher serum levels of MIP-1beta and RANTES than healthy individuals. MIP-1alpha is associated with discoid lupus, and MIP-1beta correlates with damage accrual in SLE. This study suggests that chemokines may have a role in the pathogenesis of SLE.