The association between lung cancer and occupations with probable exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) was studied among 2,584 cases and 5,099 hospital controls. The crude odds ratio (OR) for probable exposure was 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.57), but adjustment for smoking and other confounders reduced the estimate to 0.95 (95% CI = 0.78-1.16). Similar results were observed for truck drivers, the only occupational category large enough for separate analysis. Data on self-reported exposure for 477 cases and 946 controls revealed a crude OR of 1.45 (95% CI = 0.93-2.27), which was reduced to 1.21 (95% CI = 0.78-2.02) after controlling for smoking and other confounders. The present results and a review of the literature do not definitively support an etiologic association between DE exposure and elevated lung cancer risk.