We conducted field surveys for malaria and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the eastern part of Flores Island, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. A total of 1,108 volunteers (642 males and 466 females) belonging to three ethnic groups (Sikka, Ende and Bajo) were examined, and 55 G6PD-deficient individuals (38 males and 17 females) were detected. Among them, 50 samples were analyzed molecularly, in addition to three deficient cases in a Bajo family. In the Sikka population, G6PD Kaiping (1388G>A), one of the two common variants in the Chinese population, was unexpectedly found as the most dominant variant (11/22, 50.0%), followed by G6PD Chatham (1003G>A, 36.4%), G6PD Coimbra (592C>T, 9.1%) and G6PD Vanua Lava (383T>C, 4.5%). Frequency of G6PD Kaiping in the Sikka might be the highest among non-Chinese populations reported so far. In the Ende population, G6PD Vanua Lava (9/14, 64.3%) was the highest, followed by G6PD Kaiping (14.3%), G6PD Chinese-5 (1024C>T, 14.3%) and G6PD Chatham (7.1%). In the Bajo population, a total of 18 deficient cases were analyzed, and a novel mutation (844G>T) in exon 8 with a predicted amino acid change of 282 Asp>Tyr was found in a 7-year-old boy at a Bajo village near Maumere. This new Class II (mild type) variant was also confirmed in his mother and sister, and designated as G6PD Bajo Maumere. The missense mutation at the same nucleotide 844 has been known as G6PD Seattle/Lodi/Modena/Ferrara II, but this mutation is caused by a G>C substitution (282 Asp>His). In the Bajo population, G6PD Viangchan (871G>A, IVS 11 nt93 T>C, 1311C>T), the most common variant in continental Southeast Asian populations, was found to be the dominant (11/18, 61.1%), followed by G6PD Vanua Lava and the new variant (each 16.7%), and G6PD Coimbra (5.6%). These results strongly suggest that the Bajo peoples may have different ancestors from those for Sikka and Ende, and may be much closer to continental Southeast Asian populations. It is interesting that G6PD Canton (1376G>T), another common variant in Chinese, was not seen in the Flores population.