Background and aims: Dietary patterns high in fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is difficult to assess whether individuals are following a dietary pattern recommended for cardiovascular disease prevention in large population based studies. Therefore, the association between phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) intake, derived mainly from green vegetables, and risk of cardiovascular diseases [total and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD), non-fatal myocardial infarction, total and ischemic stroke] was prospectively assessed.
Methods and results: The study was conducted in 40,087 men who participated in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study during 1986-2000. There were 1857 CHD events and 617 strokes. After adjustment for lifestyle factors, the relative risks of total CHD events in increasing quintile categories of phylloquinone intake were 1 (reference), 0.84, 0.87, 0.82 and 0.84, respectively (P for trend 0.05). However, the risk of CHD events and strokes did not remain significantly associated with phylloquinone intake after adjustment for lifestyle and other dietary factors.
Conclusion: These results suggest that although not an independent risk factor, high phylloquinone intake may be a marker of dietary patterns associated with lower CHD risk and useful when used within that context.