Background: Factors predicting long-term survival and reoperative risk after mitral valve repair for subsets with prolapse involving the anterior leaflet in the current era are unclear.
Methods: Between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 1999, surgical correction of mitral regurgitation was performed in 2,219 patients. We analyzed a subset of 1,411 patients with isolated mitral regurgitation due to leaflet prolapse undergoing mitral repair or replacement (+/- coronary bypass).
Results: Mean age was 64 years, and 1,003 (71%) were men. Mitral repair was performed in 1,173 (83%) patients. Factors independently predicting overall long-term survival included valve repair, younger age, better functional class, and the absence of significant coronary artery disease. After adjusting for these, smaller preoperative left ventricular end-systolic dimension and greater preoperative ejection fraction were associated with superior survival. Mitral reoperation occurred in 97 patients (75 repairs, 22 replacements), at a mean of 4.8 years after initial procedure. Cumulative risk of reoperation was similar for patients having valve repair or replacement. Factors predictive of need for reoperation after initial repair were younger age, anterior leaflet prolapse, chordal shortening, no leaflet resection, no prosthetic annuloplasty, greater than mild residual mitral regurgitation, and coronary artery disease. After valve replacement, the sole determinant of reoperation was use of a biological prosthesis. The durability of repair for prolapse of the anterior leaflet improved significantly during the second decade of the study.
Conclusions: Mitral repair affords superior long-term survival, with permanence comparable with mechanical valve replacement. In all categories of mitral leaflet prolapse, durability of valve repair has improved over the past decade.