The available data on bone fractures in hemodialysis (HD) patients are limited to results of a few studies of subgroups of patients in the United States. This study describes the prevalence of hip fractures and the incidence and risk factors associated with hip and other fractures in representative groups of HD facilities (n=320) and patients (n=12 782) from the 12 countries in the second phase of the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (2002-2004). Among prevalent patients, 2.6% had a prior hip fracture. The incidence of fractures was 8.9 per 1000 patient years for new hip fractures and 25.6 per 1000 for any new fracture. Older age (relative risk (RR)(HIP)=1.91, RR(ANY)=1.33, P<0.0001), female sex (RR(HIP)=1.41, P=0.02; RR(ANY)=1.59, P<0.0001), prior kidney transplant (RR(HIP)=2.35, P=0.04; RR(ANY)=1.76, P=0.007), and low serum albumin (RR(HIP)=1.85, RR(ANY)=1.45, per 1 g/dl lower, P<0.0001) were predictive of new fractures. Elevated risk of new hip fracture was observed for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and combination narcotic medications (RR=1.63, RR=1.74, respectively, P<0.05). Several medications were associated with risk of any new fracture: narcotic pain medications (RR=1.67, P=0.02), benzodiazepines (RR=1.31, P=0.03), adrenal cortical steroids (RR=1.40, P<0.05), and combination narcotic medications (RR=1.72, P=0.001). Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels >900 pg/ml were associated with an elevated risk of any new fracture (RR=1.72, P<0.05) versus PTH 150-300. The results suggest that greater selectivity in prescribing several classes of psychoactive drugs and more efficient treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism may help reduce the burden of fractures in HD patients.