Hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis: from genes to environment

Nat Rev Cancer. 2006 Sep;6(9):674-87. doi: 10.1038/nrc1934.


Hepatocellular carcinoma is among the most lethal and prevalent cancers in the human population. Despite its significance, there is only an elemental understanding of the molecular, cellular and environmental mechanisms that drive disease pathogenesis, and there are only limited therapeutic options, many with negligible clinical benefit. This Review summarizes the current state of knowledge of this, the most common and dreaded liver neoplasm, and highlights the principal challenges and scientific opportunities that are relevant to controlling this accelerating global health crisis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology*
  • Environment*
  • Genes, Neoplasm / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / etiology*