Hematospermia: diagnosis and treatment

Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2006 Jun;78(2):82-5.


The presence of blood in ejaculate represents 1% of all andrologic and urologic symptoms. In most cases it has a benign character and tends to regress spontaneously after the first episode. But in the same case it can be caused by bladder-prostate or systemic malignant patology, so it is necessary to subject the patient to laboratory and instrumental tests in order to find the best treatment that, as for hematospermia, is an etiological one. Most important for correct diagnosis are patient history, physical examination, laboratory tests, transrectal ultrasound examination of the prostate, MRI, CT, cistoscopy. Hematospermia is rarely associated with significant pathology, especially in younger men. The 3 factors that dictate the extent of the evaluation and treatment are patients age, the duration and recurrence of the hematospermia, and the presence of any associated hematuria. So it is possible to distinguish idiopathic from secondary hematospermia, because secondary hematospermia, i.e. the one in which the bleeding cause is known or suspected, requires an etiologic treatment. Urologists must make rational decisions based on evidence rather than practice defensive medicine. Understanding the pathophysiology and prevalence in populations of different ages helps minimize the likelihood of problems. When in doubt, performing a TRUS, cystoscopy, and basic laboratory analyses limits exposure.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Algorithms
  • Chlamydia / isolation & purification
  • Chlamydia Infections / complications
  • Chlamydia Infections / drug therapy
  • Cystoscopy
  • Escherichia coli / isolation & purification
  • Escherichia coli Infections / complications
  • Escherichia coli Infections / drug therapy
  • Fluoroquinolones / therapeutic use
  • Hematuria / complications
  • Hemospermia* / complications
  • Hemospermia* / diagnosis
  • Hemospermia* / diagnostic imaging
  • Hemospermia* / etiology
  • Hemospermia* / microbiology
  • Hemospermia* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Recurrence
  • Time Factors
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Ultrasonography


  • Fluoroquinolones