Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of postoperative wound infections, and nasal colonization by this organism is an important factor in the development of infections. Treatment with mupirocin can eradicate the organism in the short term, and prophylactic treatment of colonized patients may prevent postoperative S. aureus infections. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to determine whether nasal mupirocin administered pre-operatively to S. aureus carriers reduces the rates of sternal and leg wound infections after cardiac surgery. The study enrolled 263 patients with nasal S. aureus undergoing elective cardiac surgery at St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. Patients were assessed for infections in the immediate postoperative period and two months later. Two hundred and fifty-seven patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis and re-analysed according to the actual treatment applied. Wound infections occurred in 17 (13.5%) mupirocin recipients and 11 (9.1%) placebo recipients (P=0.319), with seven (5.4%) and six (4.7%) sternal infections, respectively. Two (1.6%) wound infections were acquired postoperatively in the mupirocin group, neither of which were caused by S. aureus. The placebo group had three (2.4%) nosocomial wound infections, with two (1.6%) S. aureus bacteraemias (P=0.243). Among patients receiving mupirocin, 106 (81.5%) cleared S. aureus compared with 59 (46.5%) patients receiving placebo (P<0.0001). There was no significant difference between intention-to-treat and actual treatment groups. Prophylactic intranasal mupirocin administered to S. aureus carriers did not reduce the rates of overall surgical site infections by S. aureus, and only showed a trend towards decreased incidence of nosocomial S. aureus infections.