Determination of phenolic compounds in fennel by HPLC and HPLC-MS using a monolithic reversed-phase column

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007 Jan 17;43(2):481-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2006.07.029. Epub 2006 Aug 22.


A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for analyzing phenolic compounds in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) has been developed. The use of a monolithic column with short dimensions in combination with optimized chromatographic conditions allows over 100 samples per day to be analyzed. Chromatographic parameters such as column temperature and injection volume, were found to be crucial in obtaining adequate selectivity and resolution, consequently allowing short run times. The method was validated for the major phenolic compounds present in fennel plant material: 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), chlorogenic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA), eriocitrin, rutin, miquelianin, 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (1,3-diCQA), 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (1,5-diCQA), 1,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (1,4-diCQA) and rosmarinic acid. The limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.05 to 1.0 microg/mL and from 0.15 to 2.5 microg/mL, respectively. With some adaptation, the extraction procedure could be even less invasive, which is useful in screening work.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Chlorogenic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • Chlorogenic Acid / analysis
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Cinnamates / analysis
  • Depsides / analysis
  • Foeniculum / chemistry*
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Rosmarinic Acid
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Temperature


  • Cinnamates
  • Depsides
  • Phenols
  • Chlorogenic Acid
  • 1,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid
  • cynarine