The costs of introducing a malaria vaccine through the expanded program on immunization in Tanzania

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Aug;75(2 Suppl):119-30. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.2006.75.119.


This report presents an approach to costing the delivery of a malaria vaccine through the expanded program on immunization (EPI), and presents the predicted cost per dose delivered and cost per fully immunized child (FIC) in Tanzania, which are key inputs to the cost-effectiveness analysis. The costs included in the analysis are those related to the purchase of the vaccine taking into account the wastage rate; the costs of distributing and storing the vaccine at central, zonal, district, and facility level; those of managing the vaccination program; the costs of delivery at facility level (including personnel, syringes, safety boxes, and waste management); and those of additional training of EPI personnel and of social mobilization activities. The average cost per FIC increases almost linearly from US 4.2 dollars per FIC at a vaccine price of US 1 dollars per dose to US 31.2 dollars at vaccine price of US 10 dollars per dose. The marginal cost is approximately 5% less than the average cost. Although the vaccine price still determines most of the total delivery costs, the analysis shows that other costs are relevant and should be taken into account before marketing the vaccine and planning its inclusion into the EPI.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Delivery of Health Care / economics*
  • Health Care Costs*
  • Humans
  • Malaria Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Malaria Vaccines / economics*
  • Malaria Vaccines / immunology
  • National Health Programs / economics*
  • National Health Programs / organization & administration
  • Tanzania


  • Malaria Vaccines