Pituitary tumors exhibit a spectrum of biology, with variable growth and hormonal behaviors. They therefore provide an opportunity to examine pathogenetic mechanisms that underlie the neoplastic process. These include alterations in hormone regulation, growth-factor stimulation, cell-cycle control and cell-stromal interactions that result from genetic mutations or epigenetic disruption of gene expression. Mouse models have validated the roles of these alterations, which can be targets for the development of therapies that can manage these lesions. These therapies are increasingly recognized as critical for quality of life.