Genome and proteome characterization of the psychrophilic Flavobacterium bacteriophage 11b

Extremophiles. 2007 Jan;11(1):95-104. doi: 10.1007/s00792-006-0014-5. Epub 2006 Aug 25.


Virion DNA of bacteriophage 11b (Phi11b), which infects a psychrophilic Flavobacterium isolate from Arctic sea-ice, was determined to consist of 36,012 bp. With 30.6% its GC content corresponds to that of host-genus species and is the lowest of all phages of Gram-negative bacteria sequenced so far. Similarities of several of 65 predicted ORFs, genome organization and phylogeny suggest an affiliation to 'mesophilic' nonmarine siphoviruses, e.g. to bacteriophages SPP1 and HK97. Early genes presumably encode an essential recombination factor (ERF), a single strand binding (SSB) protein, an endonuclease, and a DNA methylase. The late gene segment is likely to contain a terminase, portal, minor head, protease and a major capsid gene. Five ORFs exhibited similarities to Bacteroidetes species and seem to reflect the host specificity of the phage. Among PAGE-separated virion proteins that were identified by MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry are the portal, the major capsid, and a putative conserved tail protein. The Phi11b genome is the first to be described of a cultivated virus infecting a psychrophilic host as well as a Bacteroidetes bacterium.

MeSH terms

  • Arctic Regions
  • Bacteriophages / chemistry
  • Bacteriophages / classification*
  • Bacteriophages / genetics
  • Base Composition
  • Computational Biology
  • DNA, Circular / analysis*
  • DNA, Circular / chemistry
  • DNA, Viral / analysis*
  • DNA, Viral / chemistry
  • Flavobacterium / virology*
  • Genome, Viral*
  • Genomics / methods
  • Nucleic Acid Conformation
  • Open Reading Frames
  • Phylogeny
  • Proteomics / methods
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Synteny
  • Viral Proteins / analysis
  • Viral Proteins / genetics*
  • Virion / genetics*
  • Water Microbiology


  • DNA, Circular
  • DNA, Viral
  • Viral Proteins