Exercise hyperpnea and hypercapnic ventilatory responses in women

Respir Med. 2007 Mar;101(3):446-52. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2006.07.011. Epub 2006 Aug 28.


We studied the relationship between exercise hyperpnea (i.e., ventilatory dynamics) at the onset of exercise and hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR), and their differences between the follicular (FP) and luteal (LP) phases of the menstrual cycle in six healthy females. HCVR was tested under three O(2) conditions: hyperoxia (FiO(2)=1.0), normoxia (0.21), and hypoxia (0.12). HCVR was defined as the relationship between the end-tidal P(CO2) and minute ventilation (V(E)) using the regression line of the CO(2) slope and a mimetically apneic threshold of CO(2). HCVR provocation and measurements were conducted using an inspired CO(2) concentration of up to approximately 8 mmHg higher than the end-tidal P(CO2) level of basal isocapnic the end-tidal P(CO2) at each menstrual both the slope and threshold in HCVR showed no statistically significant difference between LP and FP under any inspired FiO(2) conditions. In the case of exercise hyperpnea during the onset of submaximal exercise, the mean response time (MRT) in V(E) dynamics showed no significant difference between LP and FP. Consequently, MRT in V(E) response was not related to the slope in HCVR. During steady-state exercise, even though the V(E)/V(CO2) showed no significance between LP and FP, V(E)/V(CO2) was significantly related to the slope in HCVR (r=0.59, P<0.05). Exercise ventilation (i.e., V(E)/V(CO2)) would partly be adjusted by the enhancement of the chemoreflex drive to CO(2) only during the steady-state exercise.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Apnea / physiopathology*
  • Carbon Dioxide / physiology
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Exercise Test / methods
  • Female
  • Follicular Phase / physiology
  • Humans
  • Hypercapnia / physiopathology*
  • Luteal Phase / physiology
  • Menstrual Cycle / physiology*
  • Oxygen / physiology
  • Reaction Time / physiology
  • Respiration*
  • Respiratory Function Tests / methods


  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Oxygen