We examined factors affecting survivorship, and reasons for reoperation and revision of a cemented modular condylar total knee arthroplasty (TKA). One thousand and eight consecutive primary cemented cruciate-retaining TKAs performed at one institution were studied. At the time of review, 411 patients (562 knees) had died, 43 patients (45 knees) had their knee components revised or removed, and 47 patients (62 knees) were lost to followup. Mean followup of living patients with their TKA components in situ (244 patients, 331 knees) was 15.7 years. Survivorship at 15 years for revision for any reason, revision for mechanical failure, and revision for aseptic loosening were 95.9%, 97.0%, and 98.8% respectively. Survivorship was poorer among patients aged less than 60. Forty-five knees had components removed or revised; approximately one-third were removed for infection, one-third for aseptic loosening or tibial polyethylene wear, and one-third for other causes. Mechanical implant failures accounted for less than one-half of the reoperations and revisions, while infection and periprosthetic fractures accounted for a substantial portion of revisions and reoperations. Because mechanical arthroplasty failures have become less common, other complications related to arthroplasty have become proportionately more frequent.