Prediction of plasma protein binding displacement and its implications for quantitative assessment of metabolic drug-drug interactions from in vitro data

J Pharm Sci. 2006 Dec;95(12):2778-87. doi: 10.1002/jps.20733.


Although displacement from plasma protein binding (dPB) is usually of little clinical significance, it should be taken into account when interpreting changes in total plasma concentrations of drugs subject to metabolically based drug-drug interactions (mDDI). The aim of this study was to develop an approach to predict changes in the free fractions (fu) of pairs of drugs that compete for plasma binding, knowing their binding affinity constants, and to consider the implications of associated concentration- and time-dependence of such changes with respect to drug exposure. Experimental fu values of valproic acid and phenytoin in the presence of ibuprofen, diflunisal, or naproxen were predicted successfully (within 0.99- to 1.36-fold) by the model. In addition, the simulation of time-dependent changes in fu of valproic acid following administration of ibuprofen indicated different extents of dPB during 'first-pass' through the liver after oral absorption and on systemic recirculation. To understand the impact of the time-dependent change in fu, a full physiologically based pharmacokinetic model, that accounts for concentration-time profile of displacee and displacer and their mutual effect on each other, is required. The approach developed in this study is a first step towards the development of such a model.

MeSH terms

  • Drug Interactions
  • Models, Biological*
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / metabolism*
  • Protein Binding
  • Serum Albumin / metabolism*


  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Serum Albumin