Neurolisteriosis mimicking herpes simplex encephalitis in an immunocompromized patient

Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38(9):825-8. doi: 10.1080/00365540600551323.


Brain MRI was performed in an immunocompromized febrile and lethargic patient, revealing an asymmetric bilateral temporal lobe involvement, strongly suggestive of herpetic encephalitis. Nevertheless, PCR in CSF for Listeria monocytogens was positive. This case implies that Listeria might be considered in patients with clinical and imaging suspicion of herpetic encephalitis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Brain / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid / microbiology
  • DNA, Bacterial / analysis
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Listeria monocytogenes / genetics
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Meningitis, Listeria / diagnosis*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Radiography


  • DNA, Bacterial