Validation and clinical application of the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP)

J Pain Symptom Manage. 2006 Sep;32(3):287-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2006.03.010.


The Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP) is a brief, self-administered screening instrument used to assess suitability of long-term opioid therapy for chronic pain patients. This study presents preliminary data to examine the reliability and validity of the SOAPP as a measure of risk of opioid abuse for patients on opioid medication. Patients taking opioids for noncancer pain (n=396) from two pain centers completed the SOAPP prior to being placed on opioids for pain. Demographic data, SOAPP scores, and results of urine toxicology screens from the patients' medical records were examined. Patients were divided into two groups of high and low risk of opioid abuse potential based on cutoff scores of 8 and higher on the SOAPP. Results showed that patients in the high-risk group were younger, more likely to be asked to give a urine screen, and had more abnormal urine screens compared with those in the low-risk group (P<0.05). A combined factor analysis of the SOAPP revealed five factors labeled 1) history of substance abuse, 2) legal problems, 3) craving medication, 4) heavy smoking, and 5) mood swings. Preliminary support was found for the internal reliability and predictive validity of the SOAPP. Current limitations of the SOAPP and future directions for change are discussed.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Narcotics / therapeutic use*
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care / methods*
  • Pain / drug therapy*
  • Pain / epidemiology*
  • Pain Measurement / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Risk Assessment / methods*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Narcotics