Humans are routinely exposed to mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. These chemicals can form DNA adducts in vivo and thus lead to DNA damage. The integrity of most of the so-damaged DNAs is typically restored as a consequence of the action of certain DNA-repairing enzymes. In several DNA repair genes, polymorphisms may result in reduced repair capacity, which has been implicated as a risk factor for various types of cancer. XRCC1 is a base-excision repair protein that plays a central role in the repair of DNA base damage and strand breaks. Amongst the known genetic polymorphisms of the DNA-repair genes, X-ray repair cross-complementing groups 1 and 3 (XRCC1 and XRCC3) have been studied most commonly. Inconsistent results have been reported regarding the associations between the Arg399Gln (exon 10) polymorphism of XRCC1 and either functional significance or the risk of tobacco-associated cancers. The Gln allele of this polymorphism was associated with higher levels of DNA adducts. Therefore we genotyped one of the polymorphism of XRCC1, Gln allele. The frequency of the polymorphic alleles varies among populations, suggesting an ethnic distribution of genotypes. There has been no information on interindividual variability of Arg399Gln genotype in the Turkish population. Due to the association between the Arg399Gln polymorphism of XRCC1 and the risk of tobacco-associated cancers, we preferred to evaluate the allelic frequencies of Arg399Gln genotype than the other polymorphisms in XRCC1 gene in healthy Turkish population by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis to enable to show interindividual differences and compare to other populations.