Neointimal hyperplasia is a major cause of the failure in vascular reconstructive procedures such as angioplasty, vascular stenting, small caliber vascular graft, and vein graft. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The study of neointimal hyperplasia has relied heavily on the use of experimental animal models. Recent development in gene manipulation techniques in mice offers a unique opportunity to unravel the molecular basis of the neointimal response at the genetic level, which is critical to develop new strategies to prevent human neointimal hyperplasia. Several mouse models for studying neointimal hyperplasia have recently been established including blood-flow cessation, mechanical injury, and vein bypass graft. In an attempt to elaborate these models, this review highlights the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of these mouse models in vascular disease. In addition, the difference between mouse models and human lesions is discussed. Thus, this review provides updated information and helps vascular surgeons and other vascular biologists in selecting appropriate mouse models for their research on neointimal hyperplasia.