This study analyzes the relationship between amino acids and pain perception during active labor. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the excitatory amino acids (EAAs)-glutamate, aspartate and their amide forms, inhibitory amino acids (IAAs)-glycine, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and taurine and nitric oxide (NO) related compounds-arginine and citrulline (by-product of NO synthesis) were compared between pregnant women at term pregnancy with labor pain (n = 38) and without labor pain (Caesarian section; n = 30). The levels of aspartate, glycine, GABA and citrulline were significantly higher; whilst taurine was significantly lower in the labor pain group. These findings suggest that aspartate and NO are associated with labor pain. An inhibitory role for the IAA taurine and a pronociceptive role for glycine in labor pain are proposed.