The most important mitotic apparatus (MA) antigens are centrosome (CE), nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA-1, NuMA-2), midbody, and centromere F (CENP-F). We studied associations of anti-MA antibodies with other autoantibodies and their clinical significance. A total of 6270 patients were studied for the presence of anti-MA antibodies on HEp-2 cells. Sera positive for anti-MA were tested for anti-extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) antibodies. Anti-MA antibodies were detected in 56 (45 females and 11 males) of 6270 sera (0.9%). Of these 56, NuMA-1 was found in 23, NuMA-2 in 7, CE in 20, CENP-F in 5, and CENP-F/centrosome in 1 case. Anti-NuMA-1 were associated with anti-ENA antibodies (p < 0.001). Diagnoses were established in 43/56 patients: 22 connective tissue diseases, 7 infections, 6 autoimmune hepatitis, 3 vasculitis, 3 primary antiphospholipid syndrome, 1 malignancy, and 1 fever of unknown origin. The differential diagnosis of anti-NuMA-1-positive patients must include Sjögren's syndrome, while patients with anti-CE antibodies must be observed for HCV infection.