Can chlamydial conjunctivitis result from direct ejaculation into the eye?

Int J STD AIDS. 2006 Sep;17(9):639-41. doi: 10.1258/095646206778113140.


The majority of cases of chlamydial conjunctivitis are thought to result from autoinoculation by the patient of infected genital secretions from themselves or their sexual partners. We noted that some patients had developed symptoms following direct ejaculation into the affected eye. We describe four cases of chlamydial conjunctivitis following ejaculation of semen directly into the eye, which have not been previously described. In only one case was chlamydia detected in the genital tract. In three cases, there was no evidence of genital chlamydial infection; the sources of the eye infection being either from infected genital material of their sexual partners transferred by hands to the eyes, or more likely from direct ejaculate inoculation. It is likely that this mode of transmission is underestimated as a history of ejaculation into the conjunctiva is not normally asked for.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Azithromycin / therapeutic use
  • Cervix Uteri / microbiology
  • Chlamydia Infections / drug therapy
  • Chlamydia Infections / microbiology
  • Chlamydia Infections / urine
  • Chlamydia trachomatis / isolation & purification
  • Ciprofloxacin / therapeutic use
  • Conjunctivitis, Inclusion / etiology*
  • Conjunctivitis, Inclusion / microbiology*
  • Doxycycline / therapeutic use
  • Ejaculation*
  • Eye / microbiology*
  • Female
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metronidazole / therapeutic use
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae / isolation & purification
  • Risk Factors
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexual Partners
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urethra / microbiology
  • Urethritis / microbiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Metronidazole
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Azithromycin
  • Doxycycline