A molecular approach is used for the identification of yeast isolated from table olives. Our results validate those obtained in the past by the classical biochemical methodology. Yeast were isolated from both aerobically and anaerobically processed black table olives and also from canned seasoned green table olives. Molecular identification methodology used included restriction pattern analysis of both PCR-amplified 5.8S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacers ITS(1) and ITS(2). For some species, sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA gene was necessary. These techniques allowed the identification of three yeast species (Issatchenkia occidentalis, Geotrichum candidum and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii) which had not been described previously in table olives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida boidinii were the most frequent species in green seasoned olives and processed black olives, respectively. The molecular study of total DNA variability among the S. cerevisiae strains isolated indicates a quite heterogeneous population, with at least four different restriction patterns.