The HVE/CAND1 gene is required for the early patterning of leaf venation in Arabidopsis

Development. 2006 Oct;133(19):3755-66. doi: 10.1242/dev.02554. Epub 2006 Aug 30.


The hemivenata-1 (hve-1) recessive allele was isolated in a search for natural variations in the leaf venation pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana, where it was seen to cause extremely simple venation in vegetative leaves and cotyledons, increased shoot branching, and reduced root waving and fertility, traits that are reminiscent of some mutants deficient in auxin signaling. Reduced sensitivity to exogenous auxin was found in the hve-1 mutant, which otherwise displayed a wild-type response to auxin transport inhibitors. The HVE gene was positionally cloned and found to encode a CAND1 protein. The hve-1 mutation caused mis-splicing of the transcripts of the HVE/CAND1 gene and a vein phenotype indistinguishable from that of hve-2 and hve-3, two putatively null T-DNA alleles. Inflorescence size and fertility were more affected by hve-2 and hve-3, suggesting that hve-1 is hypomorphic. The simple venation pattern of hve plants seems to arise from an early patterning defect. We found that HVE/CAND1 binds to CULLIN1, and that the venation patterns of axr1 and hve mutants are similar, which suggest that ubiquitin-mediated auxin signaling is required for venation patterning in laminar organs, the only exception being cauline leaves. Our analyses of double mutant and transgenic plants indicated that auxin transport and perception act independently to pattern leaf veins, and that the HVE/CAND1 gene acts upstream of ATHB-8 at least in higher order veins, in a pathway that involves AXR1, but not LOP1, PIN1, CVP1 or CVP2.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / anatomy & histology
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / analysis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / physiology*
  • Body Patterning / drug effects
  • Body Patterning / genetics*
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Cullin Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genes, Plant / physiology*
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Glucuronidase / analysis
  • Glucuronidase / genetics
  • Homeodomain Proteins / analysis
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • Indoleacetic Acids / pharmacology
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Plant Leaves / anatomy & histology
  • Plant Leaves / genetics
  • Plant Leaves / growth & development*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / analysis
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • ATHB-8 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • CAND1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Cullin 1
  • Cullin Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Indoleacetic Acids
  • Transcription Factors
  • Glucuronidase