Vaccine adverse events reported in post-marketing study of the Kitasato Institute from 1994 to 2004

Vaccine. 2007 Jan 5;25(3):570-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.05.130. Epub 2006 Aug 4.


General physicians, pediatricians and parents realize that serious adverse events occur with an extremely rare incidence, but have no information on the incidences of vaccine-associated adverse events. A proper understanding of vaccine adverse events would be helpful in promoting an immunization strategy. Causal association can rarely be determined in adverse events through laboratory examinations. We examined the cases reported in the post-marketing surveillance of the Kitasato Institute, categorizing them into two groups: allergic reactions and severe systemic illnesses. Anaphylactic patients with gelatin allergy after immunization with live measles, rubella and mumps monovalent vaccines have been reported since 1993, but the number of reported cases with anaphylaxis dramatically decreased after 1999 when gelatin was removed from all brands of DPT. The incidence of anaphylactic reaction was estimated to be 0.63 per million for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine, 0.95 for DPT and 0.68 for Influenza vaccine, but the causative component has not yet been specified. Among 67.2 million immunization practices, 6 cases with encephalitis or encephalopathy, 7 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 10 with Guillain-Barré syndrome and 12 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) were reported. The wild-type measles virus genome was detected in a patient with encephalitis and in two of four bone marrow aspirates obtained from ITP after measles vaccination. Enterovirus infection was identified in two patients after mumps vaccination (one each with encephalitis and ADEM), one patient with encephalitis after immunization with JEV vaccine, and one with aseptic meningitis after immunization with influenza vaccine. The total estimated incidence of serious neurological illness after vaccination was 0.1-0.2 per million immunization practices. We found that enterovirus or wild-type measles virus infection was coincidentally associated with vaccination in several cases suspected of being vaccine adverse events.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Data Collection
  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine / adverse effects
  • Drug Hypersensitivity / epidemiology
  • Encephalitis, Japanese / epidemiology
  • Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated / epidemiology
  • Genome, Viral
  • Humans
  • Influenza Vaccines / adverse effects
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Measles Vaccine / adverse effects
  • Product Surveillance, Postmarketing*
  • RNA, Viral / analysis
  • RNA, Viral / isolation & purification
  • Vaccines / adverse effects*
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / adverse effects
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / adverse effects
  • Virus Diseases / epidemiology
  • Virus Diseases / prevention & control
  • Virus Diseases / virology


  • Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Measles Vaccine
  • RNA, Viral
  • Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, Inactivated