Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida contains a functional type III secretion system that is responsible for the secretion of the ADP-ribosylating toxin AexT. In this study, the authors identified AopP as a second effector protein secreted by this system. The aopP gene was detected in both typical and atypical A. salmonicida isolates and was found to be encoded on a small plasmid of approximately 6.4 kb. Sequence analysis indicates that AopP is a member of the YopJ family of effector proteins, a group of proteins that interfere with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and/or nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) signalling pathways. AopP inhibits the NF-kappaB pathway downstream of IkappaB kinase (IKK) activation, while a catalytically inactivated mutant, AopPC177A, does not possess this inhibitory effect. Unlike other effectors of the YopJ family, such as YopJ and VopA, AopP does not inhibit the MAPK signalling pathway.