Procedural sedation in the community emergency department: initial results of the ProSCED registry

Acad Emerg Med. 2007 Jan;14(1):41-6. doi: 10.1197/j.aem.2006.05.023. Epub 2006 Aug 31.


Objectives: Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) has been well profiled in experimental studies in university emergency departments. Extrapolation of these practices into the community hospital setting is not well established. This report describes community hospital practices and outcomes in a multicenter PSA registry.

Methods: The Procedural Sedation in the Community Emergency Department (ProSCED) registry is a prospective observational database composed of consecutive emergency physician-directed procedural sedation cases in community hospitals. Registered procedures described by 15 categorical data fields are collected at the time of the patient encounter and entered into a secure Internet-housed database.

Results: A total of 1,028 procedural sedations were performed on 980 patients at 14 study sites. The most common specified procedures performed included shoulder relocation (392), hip relocation (102), elbow relocation (70), upper extremity fracture care (69), lower extremity fracture care (66), and facial laceration repair (67). Complications of any description occurred in 42 cases (4.1%), with no patient's disposition changed secondary to a complication. Patients' ages ranged from 1 month to 95 years, with a median age of 31 years. Of procedures attempted, 982 (95.5%) were successfully completed, 21 cases (2.0%) were adequately sedated but unable to have their procedure completed, and 21 cases (2.0%) were believed to be inadequately sedated. Medication use included midazolam in 423 cases (41.1%), propofol in 253 (24.6%), fentanyl in 253 (24.6%), etomidate in 241 (23.4%), and ketamine in 145 (14.1%), as well as several others. Cases using either ketamine or propofol exhibited the fewest complications, while those using fentanyl, hydromorphone, or midazolam demonstrated the highest complication rates.

Conclusions: Community emergency physicians deliver safe and effective PSA over a wide variety of ages and procedures while using a broad selection of agents.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Conscious Sedation* / adverse effects
  • Conscious Sedation* / statistics & numerical data
  • Emergency Service, Hospital*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / adverse effects
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Registries
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Hypnotics and Sedatives