Proteins affected by anti-mIgM stimulation during B-cell maturation were identified using 2-DE-based proteomics. We investigated the proteome profiles of stimulated and nonstimulated Ramos B-cells at eight time points during 5 d and compared the obtained proteomic data to the corresponding data from DNA-microarray studies. Anti-mIgM stimulation of the cells resulted in significant differences (> or =twofold) in the protein abundance close to 100 proteins and differences in post-translational protein modifications. Forty-eight up- or down-regulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometric methods and database searches. The identities of a further nine proteins were revealed by comparing their positions to the known proteins in other lymphocyte 2-DE databases. Several of the proteins are directly related to the functional and morphological characteristics of B-cells, such as cytoskeleton rearrangement and intracellular signalling triggered by the crosslinking of B-cell receptors. In addition to proteins known to be involved in human B-cell maturation, we identified several proteins that were not previously linked to lymphocyte differentiation. The results provide deeper insights into the process of B-cell maturation and may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for immunodeficiencies. An interactive 2-DE reference map is available at http://bioinf.uta.fi/BcellProteome.