The ability of prosthetic wear debris to induce pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages is widely appreciated, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in particle recognition. Specifically, the nature of the cell surface receptors that interact with wear debris is poorly understood. Elucidating the identities of these receptors and how they interact with different types of wear debris are critical to understanding how wear debris initiates periprosthetic osteolysis. We examined the involvement of opsonization, complement receptor 3 (CR3), and scavenger receptor A (SRA), in responses to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and titanium wear particles. Serum dependence of pro-inflammatory responses to PMMA and titanium was tested, and serum proteins that adhered to these two types of particles were identified. Several serum proteins, including known opsonins such as C3bi and fibronectin, adhered to PMMA but not titanium, and serum was required for pro-inflammatory signaling induced by PMMA, but not by titanium. Phagocytosis of PMMA and titanium by macrophages was demonstrated by flow cytometry. Blocking CR3 specifically inhibited phagocytosis of PMMA by macrophages, whereas blocking SRA specifically inhibited titanium uptake. Direct involvement of CR3 and SRA in cell-particle interaction was assessed by expression of these receptors in nonphagocytic HEK293 cells. CR3 specifically induced cell binding to PMMA particles and adhesion to PMMA-coated plates, while SRA specifically induced binding to titanium particles and adhesion to titanium-coated plates. Taken together, these results suggest involvement of opsonization, complement, and integrin receptors, including CR3 and fibronectin receptors, in PMMA action, and an involvement of scavenger receptors in responses to titanium.
Copyright (c) 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.