Unicellular organisms such as yeast constantly monitor their environment and respond to nutritional cues. Rapid adaptation to ambient changes may include modification and degradation of proteins; alterations in mRNA stability; and differential rates of translation. However, for a more prolonged response, changes are initiated in the expression of genes involved in the utilization of energy sources whose availability constantly fluctuates. For example, in the presence of oleic acid as a sole carbon source, yeast cells induce the expression of a discrete set of enzymes for fatty acid beta-oxidation as well as proteins involved in the expansion of the peroxisomal compartment containing this process. In this review chapter, we discuss the factors regulating oleate induction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and we also deal with peroxisome proliferation in other organisms, briefly mentioning fatty acid-independent signals that can trigger this process.