Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer primarily occurs in the developing world, where, unfortunately, access to vaccines in general, and expensive newer vaccines in particular, is often more limited than in the industrialized world. In addition, secondary prevention methods such as HPV screening, Pap testing, or visual inspection are uncommon in the developing world. The HPV vaccine will be first introduced into the industrialized countries and it will then, over the course of time, become used in the developing countries. HPV vaccine should be introduced in the framework of comprehensive cervical cancer control, and offers an opportunity to bring together a wide range of constituents who have not to date worked closely on vaccination. Ultimately, the decision of whether and when a vaccine will be introduced will depend on individual countries. To prepare for decisions on HPV vaccine use, the sexual and reproductive health (SRH; including adolescent health), immunization, and cancer control communities need to work together to analyze the appropriate data and build international and national consensus. The timeframe for other newer vaccines, such as hepatitis B and Hib, has been measured in decades, and the challenge to the public sector is to greatly shorten the time needed to make HPV vaccines available and affordable for the developing world, where their impact will be greatest.