In this chapter we identify psychosocial issues that have been raised with respect to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and review the research literature on HPV vaccine acceptability. Many women and physicians have relatively poor knowledge about HPV, but despite this, most healthcare providers are willing to recommend HPV vaccination and parents are interested in having their children vaccinated. Concerns about post-vaccination sexual behavior change do not appear to be justified, but can certainly be addressed through anticipatory guidance. Most research studies have come out of the United States and other English-speaking industrialized countries. More psychosocial research regarding HPV vaccination is therefore needed from developing countries.