The costs of developing and producing new-generation vaccines have increased compared to many of the older, "traditional" vaccines because of new technologies and regulatory requirements. While the public sector often supports basic research costs, private manufacturers are usually responsible for the investments in product development and production scale-up. When considering investments, firms evaluate the probability of a market. Unfortunately, the developing country vaccine market is small (in revenue terms) and often unpredictable, particularly given inaccurate forecasting in the past. Low-income developing countries expect low prices. Demand (actual decisions to pay for and introduce the vaccine) is almost always lower than need (estimates of requirements to achieve optimal public health outcomes), a distinction that may be even more significant for HPV vaccines given the number of new vaccines against priority diseases that will become available over the coming 5 years. One new mechanism under consideration to address some of these challenges is Advanced Market Commitments (AMCs). By providing an assured price subsidy for developing country purchase of a future vaccine meeting predefined standards, an AMC would provide industry with greater assurances of earning a reasonable return on their investment to serve the poorest developing countries. The AMC mechanism could provide critical motivation for increased industry (private) investment that would otherwise not occur. HPV vaccines are one of six vaccines being considered for a possible AMC pilot.