The finding that cervical cancer only occurs in women infected with specific, "high-risk" types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) has led to the development of novel, non-cytology-based cervical cancer prevention strategies. We now have sensitive molecular methods for detecting HPV that dramatically improve our ability to detect high-grade cervical cancer precursor lesions. Perhaps more importantly, prophylactic HPV vaccines have been developed that are protective against cervical cancer precursors caused by HPV 16 and 18. In the Spring of 2006, over 100 experts in HPV, cervical cancer screening, and vaccination worked together to define how best to incorporate HPV DNA testing and the HPV vaccines into cervical cancer prevention efforts. In this summary, we summarize the opinions of this expert group on how these advances can be introduced to provide the maximum benefit to women and to reduce the global burden of cervical cancer.