Regulation of insulin biosynthesis in pancreatic beta cells by an endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein kinase IRE1

Cell Metab. 2006 Sep;4(3):245-54. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2006.07.007.

Abstract

In pancreatic beta cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an important site for insulin biosynthesis and the folding of newly synthesized proinsulin. Here, we show that IRE1alpha, an ER-resident protein kinase, has a crucial function in insulin biosynthesis. IRE1alpha phosphorylation is coupled to insulin biosynthesis in response to transient exposure to high glucose; inactivation of IRE1alpha signaling by siRNA or inhibition of IRE1alpha phosphorylation hinders insulin biosynthesis. IRE1 activation by high glucose does not accompany XBP-1 splicing and BiP dissociation but upregulates its target genes such as WFS1. Thus, IRE1 signaling activated by transient exposure to high glucose uses a unique subset of downstream components and has a beneficial effect on pancreatic beta cells. In contrast, chronic exposure of beta cells to high glucose causes ER stress and hyperactivation of IRE1, leading to the suppression of insulin gene expression. IRE1 signaling is therefore a potential target for therapeutic regulation of insulin biosynthesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Survival / physiology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Down-Regulation / genetics
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism
  • Hyperglycemia / metabolism
  • Hyperglycemia / physiopathology
  • Insulin / biosynthesis*
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism*
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Molecular Chaperones / genetics
  • Molecular Chaperones / metabolism
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Proinsulin / metabolism
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*
  • RNA Interference
  • Rats
  • Regulatory Factor X Transcription Factors
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Stress, Physiological / metabolism
  • Stress, Physiological / physiopathology
  • Transcription Factors
  • Up-Regulation / physiology
  • X-Box Binding Protein 1

Substances

  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Insulin
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Molecular Chaperones
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Regulatory Factor X Transcription Factors
  • Transcription Factors
  • X-Box Binding Protein 1
  • Xbp1 protein, mouse
  • Xbp1 protein, rat
  • wolframin protein
  • Proinsulin
  • Ern2 protein, mouse
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Glucose
  • molecular chaperone GRP78