Patterns of transorbital intracranial injury: a review and comparison of occult and non-occult cases

Surv Ophthalmol. 2006 Sep-Oct;51(5):449-60. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2006.06.008.


The authors present an illustrative case of occult transorbital penetrating intracranial injury in a child, and review the literature concerning patterns of low-velocity, non-projectile injury during the era of modern CT and MRI study. Review of the mechanism of injury and analysis of surface entry site of penetration in 38 cases suggests recurring patterns of injury in occult and non-occult cases. A classification system based on surface entry zone site is applied to these injuries. Knowledge of the classification system should increase clinical suspicion for this type of often occult, penetrating orbito-cranial injury and direct appropriate investigation to provide earlier detection and diagnosis of the transorbital, intracranial penetration.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain Injuries / classification
  • Brain Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Child
  • Electroencephalography
  • Eye Injuries, Penetrating / classification
  • Eye Injuries, Penetrating / diagnosis*
  • Eyelids / injuries*
  • Female
  • Head Injuries, Penetrating / classification
  • Head Injuries, Penetrating / diagnosis*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Orbit / injuries*
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Visual Fields