Esophageal cancer is a well-known cancer with poorer prognosis than other cancers. An optimal and individualized treatment protocol based on accurate diagnosis is urgently needed to improve the treatment of cancer patients. For this purpose, it is important to develop a sophisticated algorithm that can manage a large amount of data, such as gene expression data from DNA microarrays, for optimal and individualized diagnosis. Marker gene selection is essential in the analysis of gene expression data. We have already developed a combination method of the use of the projective adaptive resonance theory and that of a boosted fuzzy classifier with the SWEEP operator denoted PART-BFCS. This method is superior to other methods, and has four features, namely fast calculation, accurate prediction, reliable prediction, and rule extraction. In this study, we applied this method to analyze microarray data obtained from esophageal cancer patients. A combination method of PART-BFCS and the U-test was also investigated. It was necessary to use a specific type of BFCS, namely, BFCS-1,2, because the esophageal cancer data were very complexity. PART-BFCS and PART-BFCS with the U-test models showed higher performances than two conventional methods, namely, k-nearest neighbor (kNN) and weighted voting (WV). The genes including CDK6 could be found by our methods and excellent IF-THEN rules could be extracted. The genes selected in this study have a high potential as new diagnosis markers for esophageal cancer. These results indicate that the new methods can be used in marker gene selection for the diagnosis of cancer patients.