Supplementation of certain calcium crystallization inhibitors, such as citrate and magnesium, and the dilution of urine with water are now considered consolidated practice for the prevention of calcium kidney stones. The aim of this study is to verify, using tried and true in vitro methods, whether the effect of these inhibitors can manifest itself in different ways depending on whether the urine is concentrated or diluted. Calcium oxalate crystallization was studied on 4-h urine of 20 male idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, first under low hydration conditions (non-diluted urine) and then under high hydration conditions (diluted urine). Both the diluted and the non-diluted urine samples were subjected to three types of load: (a) an oxalate concentration increment of 1.3 mmol/l only; (b) an oxalate concentration increment of 1.3 mmol/l with a citrate concentration increment of 1.56 mmol/l; (c) an oxalate concentration increment of 1.3 mmol/l with a magnesium concentration increment of 2.08 mmol/l. In non-diluted urine, the addition of the citrate and magnesium did not modify the crystallization parameters under study. In contrast, in the diluted urine the addition of the citrate and magnesium led to a reduction in the total quantity of crystals (equivalent to 35-45%) and their aggregates (equivalent to 30-40%); at the same time, there was an increase in the diameter of the monohydrate calcium oxalate crystals, which also underwent a morphological change. In conclusion, the inhibitory effects of citrate and magnesium on the crystallization of calcium oxalate do not manifest themselves in highly concentrated urine.