Recent advances in cereal genomics have made it possible to analyse the architecture of cereal genomes and their expressed components, leading to an increase in our knowledge of the genes that are linked to key agronomically important traits. These studies have used molecular genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) of several complex traits that are important in breeding. The identification and molecular cloning of genes underlying QTLs offers the possibility to examine the naturally occurring allelic variation for respective complex traits. Novel alleles, identified by functional genomics or haplotype analysis, can enrich the genetic basis of cultivated crops to improve productivity. Advances made in cereal genomics research in recent years thus offer the opportunities to enhance the prediction of phenotypes from genotypes for cereal breeding.