Visfatin, a new adipokine, facilitates adipogenesis and has insulin-mimetic properties. We aimed to investigate the plasma visfatin levels in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), who had no obesity or hypertension. Twenty-two patients with T2DM, 18 subjects with IGT and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Visfatin levels were measured along with the BMI, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, insulin, adiponectin and hsCRP levels, and HOMA-IR indexes. Age, sex and BMI were similar in all groups. Visfatin levels were higher in the diabetic group than the controls (p=0.01). There was no significant difference in the visfatin levels between the T2DM and IGT groups as well as IGT group and healthy controls. Plasma visfatin concentrations did not differ between men and women. Visfatin levels did not correlate with BMI, blood pressure, plasma adiponectin, insulin, hsCRP, glucose and lipid levels or HOMA-IR indexes in the three groups. These results indicate that hyperglycemia causes an increase in plasma visfatin levels and, as in people with T2DM but not with IGT, this increase gets more prominent as the glucose intolerance worsens.