An increasing number of acute leukemias coexpressed markers normally believed to be restricted to a single lineage have been found recently. This special subgroup of leukemias have drawn a lot of attention because of their biologic and clinical significance. In a study of 100 consecutive de novo ANLL patients diagnosed by FAB criteria, T-cell antigen CD7 was identified on the leukemic blasts of 13 patients, ten of whom had M1 subtype of leukemia, myeloblastic leukemia without maturation. All the patients showed positive staining with myeloperoxidase and expressed myeloid markers CD13 and/or CD33, but lacked CD11b, a marker of more mature myeloid cells. Combined staining with myeloperoxidase and CD7 of the cells from four patients revealed coexpression of both markers on the same cells. None of the patients expressed the two other T-cell antigens CD2 or CD5. All ten patients who had DNA analysis showed germline configuration of TCR beta and gamma chain genes. One patient had chromosomal translocation involving 11q23, t(11; 19) (q23; p13), which is the site frequently associated with both myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. The clinical implications of this subgroup of patients need further study on more patients, and need longer follow-up.