Epidemiological studies have indicated no association between diagnostic ultrasound exposure during pregnancy and childhood malignancies. Diagnostic ultrasound imaging does not seem to influence birth weight, whereas frequent Doppler ultrasound was associated with reduced birth weight in one study. Most experts do not believe that ultrasound exposure during pregnancy is associated with reduced birth weight. There are no confirmed statistically significant associations between ultrasound and dyslexia and neurological development during childhood. However, two randomised controlled trials and two cohort studies have been unable to rule out a possible association between ultrasound and left-handedness among males.