With advances in surgical procedures, neuropsychological assessment after congenital heart defects and pre, peri- and/or postoperative predictors of adverse outcome has become an important focus in research. We aim to summarize neuropsychological sequelae associated with different types of congenital heart defects, critically review the methodology used in more than 20 empirical studies that were retrieved from biomedical electronic search engines, and identify possible directions for future research. Despite the lack of adequate control groups and long-term studies, there seem to be some cognitive deficits. The largest group of children with isolated congenital heart defects present with normal intellectual capacities. However, they tend to show language deficits and motor dysfunction. Although performances on memory tasks are good, unambiguous conclusions concerning their attentional and executive functioning are still lacking. Serious behavioral problems are not an issue. In addition to a detailed description of the (neuro) psychological consequences of pediatric cardiac surgery, an overview of the predictors of the cognitive defects is provided.