Several approaches have recently been adopted to improve Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice, both to generate the large number of T-DNA insertion plants needed for functional analysis of the rice genome, and for production of rice with additional agronomical value. However, about 3 months of in vitro culture is still required for isolation of transgenic rice plants. Here, we report the competency of scutellum tissue from 1-day pre-cultured seeds for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Furthermore, early infection of rice seeds with Agrobacterium enhanced efficient selection of transformed calli. Using our system, we successfully regenerated transgenic rice plantlets within a month of the start of the aseptic culture of mature seeds. Our new system should reduce the somaclonal variation accompanying prolonged culture of rice cells in the dedifferentiated state and facilitate the molecular breeding of rice.