Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic pain: a psychometric assessment of the original English version of the Tampa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK)

Pain. 2007 Jan;127(1-2):42-51. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2006.07.016. Epub 2006 Sep 7.


The Tampa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK) was developed to measure fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic pain patients. Although studies of the Dutch adaptation of the TSK have identified fear of movement/(re)injury as an important predictor of chronic pain, pain-related avoidance behaviour, and disability, surprisingly little data on the psychometric properties of the original English version of the TSK are available. The present study examined the reliability, construct validity and factor structure of the TSK in a sample of chronic pain patients (n=200) presenting for an interdisciplinary functional restoration program. Consistent with prior evaluations of the Dutch version of the TSK, the present findings indicate that the English TSK possesses a high degree of internal consistency and is positively associated with related measures of fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, pain-related disability and general negative affect. The TSK was not related to individual differences in physical performance testing as assessed using standardised treadmill and lifting tasks. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the TSK is best characterized by a three-factor trait method model that includes all 17 of the original scale items and takes into account the distinction between positively and negatively keyed items. The results of the present study provide important details regarding the psychometric properties of the original English version of the TSK and suggest that it may be unnecessary to remove the negatively keyed items in an attempt to improve scale validity.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chronic Disease
  • Comorbidity
  • Fear / psychology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Movement
  • Pain / epidemiology
  • Pain / psychology*
  • Pain Measurement / methods*
  • Pain Measurement / statistics & numerical data
  • Phobic Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Phobic Disorders / epidemiology
  • Phobic Disorders / psychology
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Psychometrics / methods*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Risk Assessment / methods
  • Risk Factors
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Severity of Illness Index*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Wounds and Injuries / epidemiology
  • Wounds and Injuries / psychology*