Anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) immunotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer

Urol Oncol. Sep-Oct 2006;24(5):442-7. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2005.08.011.


Costimulatory pathway ligands and receptors can deliver either positive or negative signals to help determine the ultimate fate of activated T lymphocytes. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) represents one of the most extensively studied receptors in the costimulatory pathway and has recently been shown to function as a potent inhibitor of T cell-mediated immunity. T-cell expression of CTLA-4 indirectly facilitates tumor progression by restraining host antitumoral immunity. In contrast, administration of a monoclonal antibody to block CTLA-4 function can alleviate restraints on T-cell activity to promote immune-mediated tumor regression. We review the preclinical and clinical experience with CTLA-4 blockade as a promising immunotherapeutic approach to treat patients with advanced prostate cancer.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • Antigens, CD / immunology*
  • Antigens, Differentiation / immunology*
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / immunology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • CTLA4 protein, human