Consumption of Whole-Grain Cereals During Weight Loss: Effects on Dietary Quality, Dietary Fiber, Magnesium, Vitamin B-6, and Obesity

J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Sep;106(9):1380-8; quiz 1389-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2006.06.003.

Abstract

Objective: While various weight-management approaches produce weight loss, they may differ in dietary quality. We monitored changes in nutrient intakes in overweight and obese subjects on three different weight-management programs.

Design: Randomized clinical trial (pilot study) with two 12-week phases: phase 1, weekly counseling; phase 2, monitoring only.

Subjects/setting: One hundred eighty nonsmoking, sedentary overweight and obese adults began this outpatient study; 134 (body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=30.9+/-2.4; age=42.3+/-1.2 years) were used in analyses.

Intervention: Twenty-four weeks of exercise only (control group), hypocaloric diet plus exercise, or hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise.

Main outcome measures: At weeks 0, 12, and 24, diet quality was assessed by 3-day food records and body weight was measured.

Statistical analyses performed: Three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures.

Results: The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise decreased energy intake more than exercise only (P=0.032). By week 12, the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise decreased total fat more than exercise only, which was sustained in the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise at 24 weeks (P<0.001). At weeks 12 and 24, the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise reduced saturated fat intake more than exercise only. The hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise increased total fiber, insoluble fiber (both P<0.001), magnesium (P=0.004), and vitamin B-6 (P=0.002) intakes more than the hypocaloric diet plus exercise and exercise only. Calcium and vitamin E intakes were inadequate in all groups. Weight loss was similar in the hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereals plus exercise and the hypocaloric diet plus exercise.

Conclusions: Weight-reduction strategies may be associated with reduced intake of micronutrients, such as calcium and vitamin E. However, a hypocaloric diet with fiber-rich whole-grain cereal is effective for improving or maintaining other aspects of dietary quality during weight loss.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Body Mass Index
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diet / standards*
  • Diet Records
  • Diet, Reducing / adverse effects
  • Diet, Reducing / standards
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage*
  • Edible Grain*
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnesium / administration & dosage
  • Male
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Nutritive Value
  • Obesity / diet therapy
  • Obesity / therapy*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vitamin B 6 / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin B Complex / administration & dosage
  • Vitamin B Deficiency / epidemiology
  • Vitamin B Deficiency / prevention & control
  • Weight Loss / physiology*

Substances

  • Dietary Fiber
  • Vitamin B Complex
  • Vitamin B 6
  • Magnesium