Recombinant adenoviral vectors based on type 5 (rAd5) show great promise as a vaccine carrier. However, neutralizing activity against Ad5 is prevalent and high-titred among human populations, and significantly dampens Ad5-based vaccine modalities. The generation of alternative adenoviral vectors with low seroprevalence thus receives much research attention. Here, it is shown that a member from human adenovirus subgroup D, i.e. Ad49, does not cross-react with Ad5 neutralizing activity, making it a candidate serotype for vector development. Therefore, a plasmid system that allows formation of replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 49 vaccine vectors (rAd49) was constructed and it was demonstrated that rAd49 can be successfully propagated to high titres on existing Ad5.E1-complementing cell lines such as PER.C6. Using an rAd49 vector carrying the luciferase marker gene, detailed seroprevalence studies were performed, demonstrating that rAd49 has low seroprevalence and neutralizing antibody titres worldwide. Also, we have initiated rAd49 vector receptor usage suggesting that rAd49 utilizes hCD46 as a cellular receptor. Finally, the immunogenicity of the rAd49 vector was assessed and it was shown that an rAd49.SIVGag vaccine induces strong anti-SIVGag CD8+ T-lymphocytes in naïve mice, albeit less than an rAd5.SIVGag vaccine. However, in mice with high anti-Ad5 immunity the rAd5.SIVGag vaccine was severely blunted, whereas the anti-SIVGag response was not significantly suppressed using the rAd49.SIVGag vaccine. These data demonstrate the potential of a replication deficient human group D adenoviral vector for vaccination purposes.